Shankar and Balasubramanian (2009) dealt with the ‘adoption of innovation’ subject while examining the drivers of mobile marketing adoption and asserted that the key drivers of adopting a mobile device or service include the relative advantage of the innovation, the innovation’s fit with existing usage patterns, the perceived complexity of the innovation, the ability to try out the innovation, the perceived risk related to adoption. Similarly, Henderson et al. (1998) found that the usefulness and enjoyment derived in using an innovation will likely lead to increased loyalty and future use.
Besides adoption to innovation, most of the scholars dealt with directly mobile marketing adoption.
- Merisavo et al. (2007) indicated that the utility and relevancy of mobile advertising messages affect customers’ adoption to mobile marketing.
- Pura’s (2005) survey showed that conditional value (such as context), commitment, and monetary value had the strongest influence on behavioral intentions to use mobile services.
- Pagani (2004) found that perceived usefulness, ease of use, price, and speed of use were the most important determinants of adoption of multimedia mobile services.
- Kleijnen et al., (2004) found that perceived risk, followed by complexity and compatibility were the most important drivers of adoption
- In their study, Nysveen et al. (2005) demonstrate that the intention to use mobile devices can be driven by perceived enjoyment, perceived usefulness, and perceived expressiveness. They also asserted that; the strengths of these influences varied across four mobile service areas: person-to-person interactive text messaging, contact services (which extend text messaging to a larger social network), payment services, and gaming services.In addition to drivers to mobile adoption, some authors also mentioned about the barriers to mobile adoption.
- In his study, Barutc?u (2008) put forward that; main barriers to mobile marketing are the mobile web browsers, technological skills, perception of risks and traditional shopping culture, lack of awareness of the benefits provided by them.
- Fenech (2002) asserted that security, tangibility, and the lack of experience are also main barriers of mobile commerce
- Shankar and Balasubramanian (2009) believed that low penetration of mobile devices’ video capability and lack of trust in mobile marketing are the major hurdles for mobile marketing.
To sum up, after evaluating the results of different studies regarding mobile adoption, it can be told that; drivers and barriers of mobile adoption changes from person to person, device to device, application to application, channel to channel, service to service, etc… Mostly drivers like utility, relevancy, context, ease of use, price, usefulness, speed of use, perceived risk, compatibility, enjoyment, and expressiveness are being mentioned in the literature.
Also, perception of risks, lack of awareness of mobile benefits, lack of experience in using mobile devices and services, low penetration of mobile devices’ extra feature capability and lack of trust are presented as the major barriers to mobile adoption in the literature. In order to construct an appropriate mobile marketing strategy, marketers must understand major drivers and barriers to mobile marketing adoption as a first step. It shouldn’t be forgotten that these drivers and barriers vary among customers, devices, services and channels, so marketers should analyze these drivers and barriers in their target market context.