Ravi Shukla
Ravi Shukla 3 November 2023

Dark Patterns in UX Design: A Guide for Designers

Learn about the deceptive world of dark patterns in UX design and why it's crucial for designers to avoid them. Discover various types of dark patterns, their impact on users and businesses, and ethical alternatives that can enhance user experiences while maintaining brand integrity.

Creating user-friendly interfaces that facilitate seamless navigation and interaction should be a top priority for UX designers. However, the pursuit of growth and sales targets sometimes leads to the adoption of dark patterns in UX design, which can have detrimental consequences for both users and businesses.

In this article, we'll explore what dark patterns are and discuss why designers should avoid them.

What are Dark Patterns in UX?

Dark patterns are user interface design patterns deliberately crafted to manipulate or deceive users into taking actions they might not willingly choose. These patterns are typically used to benefit the business or organization behind the design rather than the user.

Dark patterns involve methods that influence users into taking actions that are against their best interests, often referred to as manipulative or black patterns.

Dark patterns can range from subtle omissions to outright falsehoods, aiming to undermine users' objectives, waste their time, or extract money they didn't intend to spend.

Types of Dark Patterns in UX

Bait and Switch

Users are enticed with false information, and when they engage, the content or action changes entirely.

For instance, clicking the "X" button to close a pop-up results in an unwanted action.

Hidden Costs

Prices are initially advertised as lower, but additional costs are revealed during the checkout process, such as taxes or shipping fees.

Forced Continuity 

Users are required to provide personal information, like credit card details, to proceed on a website or app, often without clear disclosure of the terms.

Confirm Shaming 

Users are manipulated into making choices by making alternative options sound unappealing, such as using language like "No thanks, I like to make bad choices."

Disguised Ads 

Ads are made to look like content, tricking users into clicking on them, leading to unintended actions.

Roach Motel 

Users can easily sign up but struggle to deactivate or cancel their accounts, as seen with certain social media platforms.

Friend Spam

Platforms encourage users to share their contacts under the guise of better connections but end up spamming those contacts.

Privacy Zuckering 

Users are coerced into accepting privacy policies without a clear understanding of the extent of their consent, leading to data sharing without their knowledge.

Asking More than Intended 

Users are asked for more personal information than they intended to provide.


Design elements divert user attention away from crucial actions, often leading to frustration.

Triggering Fear

Users are warned that not choosing a certain option will have negative consequences, exploiting fear to influence their decisions.

Triggering FOMO (Fear of Missing Out) 

Users are pressured to make quick decisions due to false urgency, such as "Only a few items left in stock."

Why Do Companies Use Dark Patterns?

Companies resort to dark patterns for various reasons, including:

Meeting Short-Term Metrics

Dark patterns can help achieve short-term goals and targets.

Increasing Clicks and Engagement 

These patterns can boost click-through rates and user engagement, potentially leading to higher profits.

Ease of Implementation 

Dark patterns can be a quick solution for gathering user data or marketing opt-ins.

Why Should Designers Avoid Dark Patterns?

There are compelling reasons for designers to steer clear of dark patterns:

Manipulative Nature 

Dark patterns exploit human psychology to push users into actions that serve the company's interests, not the user's.

Poor Customer Experience

Users appreciate transparent and honest brands, and dark patterns can lead to a bad user experience, damaging brand loyalty.

High Abandonment Rates 

Dark patterns can drive users away when they realize they are being deceived, leading to abandonment of products or services.

Loss of Trust

Continuous deception erodes trust and loyalty, pushing users towards competitors.

Legality Issues 

Some regions have penalized the use of dark patterns, exposing businesses to legal consequences.

Damage to Brand Image

Negative feedback about dark patterns can spread quickly, leading to declining sales and engagement.

Why are Dark Patterns Unethical?

Dark patterns are unethical because they don't always serve users' best interests. They manipulate users into actions they may not fully understand or want to take, leading to frustration and loss of control. Designers should prioritize user empowerment and informed decision-making.

In conclusion, dark patterns in UX can have detrimental effects on user experience, trust, and brand reputation. Designers should opt for ethical and transparent design practices, fostering trust, customer loyalty, and a positive brand image.

Users are increasingly aware of dark patterns, making it imperative for designers and businesses to embrace ethical design practices and empower users to make informed choices.

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